By Ian Kershaw
“Magisterial . . . somebody who needs to appreciate the 3rd Reich needs to learn Kershaw.”—Niall Ferguson“The Hitler biography of the twenty-first century” (Richard J. Evans), Ian Kershaw’s Hitler is a one-volume masterpiece that would turn into the traditional paintings. From Hitler’s origins as a failed artist in fin-de-siècle Vienna to the terrifying final days in his Berlin bunker, Kershaw’s richly illustrated biography is a captivating portrait of ways Hitler attained, exercised, and retained strength. Drawing on formerly untapped resources, corresponding to Goebbels’s diaries, Kershaw addresses the the most important questions on the original nature of Nazi radicalism, in regards to the Holocaust, and in regards to the poisoned ecu global that allowed Hitler to function so successfully. a few pictures within the book usually are not displayed as a result of permissions concerns.
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Extra resources for Hitler
First, it forced the German public to witness the evidence of Nazi criminality. Second, it challenged the Nazi narrative of the war. Third, it attempted to make Germans feel responsible for abetting the Nazi regime. Fourth, it tried to replace feelings of victimhood with a sense of culpability. And ﬁfth, it made Germans recognize the new structure of power. Germans were defeated, occupied, and subject to the whims of the occupying powers. American soldiers were bafﬂed when civilians living nearby claimed not American Atrocity Propaganda 29 to have known of the existence of the concentration camps.
At the same time we talked to some civilians. They lived within a mile of the camp. They denied knowing anything that was going on, even with the strong smell of human ﬂesh. This was the worst day of the war for me. 27 These were not isolated cases of denial. Photographer Margaret BourkeWhite described the incessant denials of knowledge: “We didn’t know! ” I ﬁrst heard these words on a sunny afternoon in mid-April, 1945. They were repeated so often during the weeks to come, and all of us heard them with such monotonous frequency, that we came to regard them as a kind of national chant for Germany.
Ameri- 28 Chapter One cans had experienced World War II through censored images. After Pearl Harbor, the Ofﬁce of Censorship was set up to control the information and images that reached the American public. The War Department’s Bureau of Public Relations also screened photographic material and determined what was appropriate for publication. The aim was to maintain public support for the war effort, and the fear was that images of defeat or suffering would demoralize the public. S. government worried that the censorship of images was causing skepticism and disbelief.